Paper Ice Dome
As a low cost construction method for storm shelter and dwellings.  The concept would then be as follows;

Freeze wet ,by water, newspapers  rolled to 2" diameter, to the quadrant arc of a dome for  the selected diameter upon a shipping pallet level deck ( assembled of many pallets) , atop a house wrap and of plastic sheeting. Let freeze completely then trim the plastic off the arc of frozen paper.

Sink a pipe 2' (feet ) into the ground at the center of the dome and erect a pole vertical that will extend 10' Feet past the apex of the dome. The vertical pole will have two pulley system toward the top of the pole. The highest for the maximum parachute to then act as a rain tent ( prevents wet concrete from being inadvertently affected when curing ) the lower pulley system then to act to hoist the top ring assembly system , made of a dual plate plywood ring that will lock into place the frozen paper arcs by 3" wood screws.

 Assemble all vertical arcs, spaced appropriately about the circumference of the dome's base circle then inserting the base of the frozen paper arc into a pipe within the ground with the "pad" ( concrete fill so that form is level at it's base ) .

 Once the vertical rib structure is stable then begin to assemble the horizontal members also the made of frozen paper in broken arcs ... but for speed of construction lay out the horizontal members of frozen paper then in concentric circles then trim apart before they freeze. Once the horizontal members have frozen then affix to the vertical "ribs" locking them together by squares of plywood then secured with  wood screws. As an optional horizontal member a rope  ( twine is cheap ) may then be weaved through the vertical "ribs" to then have the "dome" layers with a house wrap thin insulator to then accept the wire mesh and layers of concrete.

 Upon the horizontal members also then affix screw mounting plates to affix house wrap and or plastic sheeting to the accept the top deposition of ice then sprayed atop a parachute dome cap with the plastic sheeting covering the rest of the dome frame. Allow for time between wetting / ice layering for the dome to solid , ice to freeze...and repeat until sufficient thickness will then be attained ...then according to dome diameter, to then support the top coat of fiber reinforced concrete and  chicken wire reinforcement . The concrete can be hand applied to save money by but be sure to cause continual bonding ( edge wet of application concrete ) and even depth application of the concrete. Install reinforcing steel bent in a "Z" shape to act as a concrete slab tie into the base of the dome allowing for correct concrete coverage for correct locking once the concrete has cured ( factor both dome concrete dome applications and the floor slab itself).

This completes, once cured, the "Base form"  to then accept the reinforcing steel grid  ( wire tied + spot welded ) hemisphere  and or geodesic system reinforced to have the final sprayed concrete deposition for final form loading required by the earthen mass atop the structure for insulation. Doors and windows accounted for where required will then be formed to the Base form and will be then also reinforced by reinforcing steel shaped to fit the additional orifice for the awning and or dormer / and doors...

Geodesic hub = metal pipe with holes bored at 1 1/2"  spacer of  hub pipe off the dome,  and one side trimmed to then cause a "u" shape one backing plate taped in place with bolts inserted = tack welded with bolt threads outward to be exposed through the cap plate  ( wood or metal ) with the plates then bolted together..then steel reinforcement bars then inner welded to metal washer once in place then hub fill with concrete and then plates bolt and or are wood screwed together.

Paper base form " hub" =  plastic pipe with holes bored and one side trimmed to then cause a "u" shape  ( facing inward ) for base form dismantlement,  ( reuse ) one backing
 plate ( wood or metal ) with the plates then wood screwed together.

The top coat of concrete will take time to cure ( reference cold weather concrete installation )  the ice dome will need to remain intact during top coat deposition of the sprayer/ or hand applied concrete with reinforcing steel...  then have available a cooling system if possible... also check ambient air temperature every 20 minutes during all concrete application to insure ice integrity for structural stability.

After the top cost has set / cured the ice inner dome structure will be heated melted and directed to the drain placed within the dome among the gravel with a plastic water catch sheet to direct the melt water.  The slab lock pins will also be exposed  above the gravel, reinforcing steel and plastic sheet / water barrier to bond the slab of floor concrete with reinforcing steel to the concrete dome circumference.

A water sealer will be applied atop the top coat of concrete then to be covered by repairable plastic deposition coating ( UVA / UVB light tolerant ).

As a "base" form the same method using frozen news paper may also be implemented for geodesic type construction platforms allowing for smaller pieces of frozen news paper then plugging into plastic hub connectors. The connectors are then a large diameter pipe with holes drilled into the pipe's circumference spaced correctly to insert the frozen paper tubes then the "hub" is filled with wet shredded paper to lock the hub and the frozen paper rolls into place until the dome is completed. This design uses less frozen news paper. The "hubs" are capped facing the interior of the dome with cardboard affixed by tape to the plastic or metal hub with holes. The base form then accepts outer concrete layering with metal reinforcement.

 As a "base" form the method also works for dry construction  for geodesic construction using rolled newspaper bound in a tight roll by tape... then using "hubs" with docking holes also then with open orifice upon the " hub" pipe to then have wood plates ( one upon the inner surface and one upon the outer surface )  then screwed together to lock the paper tubes together...the tubes should then be color coded  by length to ease in construction. The base form then accepts outer concrete layering with metal reinforcement.

As an option the dry form geodesic paper roll type design platform may also use in lieu of ice a rope of straw bound by twine then weaved through the structural  support system (rolls of paper to then resemble a basket. The interior of the "basket" dome would then have a backing plastic sheet secured at the hubs to retain the concrete plus chicken wire laminate upon the exterior. ( ie many thin layers about 1" thick ...) , until earth loading for the roof / dome  cover system is attained. Earthen cover will vary depending upon latitude.

Another option for forming the sub form for the the ice deposition is to used inflatable balloons then taped together and or plastic bags then inflated in multiple assemblies of inflated bags then formed into a dome structure to then accept water sprayed upon the "bag" dome  to then cause the base form until the ice deposition is safe ( thick enough ) ( saw dust added option) to then support the top coat of concrete with the addition of metal reinforcement ...  Doors and windows then formed for upon the final layers to then mate / bond with the dome when curing. balloons may also be used for sub form support for the ice pycrete layering  ( laminate ) if the balloons then resemble a modified bowling pin with a terminal end opposite fill end then being a gradual incline in the circumference of the balloon, then being the outer surface of the dome when being installed. The balloon may have valved intakes to then reuse the inflatable form when the ice /pycrete sub form is then melted and debris remove to then expose the cured inner surface of the concrete laminate domes interior Then the dome is ready for stucco inner ) and top coat sealing for water ( exterior ) and earthen mass atop for insulation etc...

Another option to create / construct the base structure is to obtain 200 to 500 news papers , rolled into a slight cone , tape closed then slip cover ( plastic or brown grocery bags work) then used the paper cone as a "brick to create a mortar matrix  referencing the center point of an eventual dome by using a string to then set the paper cone at the correct distance and pitch. The mortar may then have added inter lock by using thin  .75" - 1" strips of fabric then embedded into the mortar then interlocking many cones ( stagger cloth tie "ribbon" ). When setting high pitch "brick cones" the bag wrapper will then also be secured by tie string to lower brick then having had the mortar matrix rigid and cured. After the mortar has set extract the cone and place another outer slip sleeve ( plastic or paper bag wrap ) to then give the cone repeated use.
Repeat until the dome completes its form then filling the cavitation with  adobe and or  hay within a plastic bag ( used grocery bags ) dependent upon dome size....larger should use adobe. The hay should be real dry...then sealed in the bag with a little disinfectant aerosol spray. Adobe the must cure allowed by small hole in the bag to vent moisture.  Frame for windows and doors.
Then chicken wire layer the exterior of the dome and hand trowel concrete mixed with glass or other synthetic fiber..( continual edge bond ).... repeat until earth load bearing thickness is attained.  Concrete laminate must cure completely between layers  . Plastic shell coating and or Stucco the exterior.... Water seal then earth cover....

Carbon graphite fiber is the concrete filler of choice  ( mixed in the concrete ) for the fiber fill but glass reinforced will work as well...

Then install interior amenities as required.

Geoengineering - Climate Change Mitigation

Design Desk Inc.